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A bone fracture is a medical condition where the continuity of the bone is broken.
Here are some facts about fractures. Most bone fractures are caused by falls and accidents. Bone fractures caused by disease are referred to as pathological fractures. A compound fracture is one that also causes injury to the overlying skin. There are a number of different types of fractures, including avulsion, comminuted, and hairline fractures. Bone healing is a natural process, treatment revolves around giving the bone optimum conditions to heal itself.
Most fractures are caused by a bad fall or automobile accident. Healthy bones are extremely tough and resilient and can withstand surprisingly powerful impacts. As people age, two factors make their risk of fractures greater: Weaker bones and a greater risk of falling.
Children, who tend to have more physically active lifestyles than adults, are also prone to fractures.
People with underlying illnesses and conditions that may weaken their bones have a higher risk of fractures. Examples include osteoporosis, infection, or a tumor. As mentioned earlier, this type of fracture is known as a pathological fracture.
Stress fractures, which result from repeated stresses and strains, commonly found among professional sports people, are also common causes of fractures.
There is a range of fracture types, including:
Avulsion fracture – a muscle or ligament pulls on the bone, fracturing it.
Comminuted fracture – the bone is shattered into many pieces.
Compression (crush) fracture – generally occurs in the spongy bone in the spine. For example, the front portion of a vertebra in the spine may collapse due to osteoporosis.
Fracture dislocation – a joint becomes dislocated, and one of the bones of the joint has a fracture.
Greenstick fracture – the bone partly fractures on one side but does not break completely because the rest of the bone can bend. This is more common among children, whose bones are softer and more elastic.
Hairline fracture – a partial fracture of the bone. Sometimes this type of fracture is harder to detect with routine xrays.
Impacted fracture – when the bone is fractured, one fragment of bone goes into another.
Intraarticular fracture – where the break extends into the surface of a joint
Longitudinal fracture – the break is along the length of the bone.
Oblique fracture – a fracture that is diagonal to a bone’s long axis.
Pathological fracture – when an underlying disease or condition has already weakened the bone, resulting in a fracture (bone fracture caused by an underlying disease/condition that weakened the bone).
Spiral fracture – a fracture where at least one part of the bone has been twisted.
Stress fracture – more common among athletes. A bone breaks because of repeated stresses and strains.
Torus (buckle) fracture – bone deforms but does not crack. More common in children. It is painful but stable.
Transverse fracture – a straight break right across a bone.
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· Fracture reduction
· Few fractures will require surgery but our aim is to treat most of the fractures without surgery.