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The total hip arthoplasty is a surgical procedure performed to remove and replace the arthritic hip joint surface by artificial prosthesis to reduce pain and improve function. The worn-out or damaged cartilages and bones of hip joint is replaced with parts constructed with materials like titanium, cobalt-chromium, ceramics, and very hard plastics.
The hip prosthesis is made up of two parts a stem and a socket. The stem fits inside the thighbone (femur) and the socket or cup fits into the acetabulum of pelvis. A ball (head of femur) fits between socket and stem.
The two most common type of prosthesis are cemented prosthesis and uncemented prosthesis. The cemented prosthesis is attached to the bone with surgical cement while the uncemented prosthesis is fixed by press fit primarily and secondary bony ingrowths on the porus surface of metal implant over time. Sometimes combination of both the techniques can be done.
Partial hip replacement also called as hemiarthroplasty is a surgical procedure recommended for patients with fracture head or neck of femur. The femoral head or ball is replaced with a metal prosthesis. The socket is not replaced in hemiarthroplasty while against the total hip; both femoral head and socket are changed. Partial hip replacement is not suggested as a treatment for any arthritis hip disease since arthritis involves both socket and head of the hip joint.
The choice of surgery is subjectively decided by the treating doctor. Patients with low demand in quality of life and with more comorbid conditions are the candidate for partial hip replacement.
Over time, the original components of a primary hip replacement procedure can wear and loosen from bone surfaces. A revision hip replacement involves an operation to replace some or all of the original prosthetic components with new ones. The complexity of your revision surgery depends on the amount of loosening or damage that has occurred to bone surfaces. Specialized components and bone graft material may be required to rebuild the hip joint to make it durable and functional again.